Thus a division into chapters by national tradition seemed the preferable structure for organizing our material. It should go without saying that our chapter titles do not refer to political entities which in some cases did not even exist yet but to regions united by a common culture and language. In this context we should also assure our readers that generalizations made about certain national traits and tendencies do not refer to innate characteristics of the people born within each region, but rather to common aspects of their culture.
The individual treatment of each region does risk drawing attention away from those aspects of the early repertory that are shared by the national traditions and also from the sometimes fruitful cross-pollinations among them; we have therefore in chapter 1 included a brief overview of the entire European scene, noting both similarities and differences among respective literatures.
Early Music Discography
Keyboard music written after is regularly performed and widely heard, or to be more precise, a canon of works from this period is regularly performed and widely heard. Restricted as that canon may be, its familiarity also makes it easy to relate to less frequently played music from the period. But for keyboard music before , no such canon currently exists; at best we are in the early stages of the formation of one.
Until a few decades ago the main interest in this repertory was historical rather than artistic, largely motivated by the desire to trace the antecedents of J. But studying Froberger, for instance, for the way he foreshadowed Bach has the effect of placing Bach between us and Froberger, thus obscuring the earlier composer from our view; it turns him into a historical artifact.
Perhaps even more unfamiliar than the early repertories are the cultures that produced them. When entering any foreign territory, a lack of sensitivity to different customs and conventions may lead to misunderstandings and misinterpretations. Similarly, without some knowledge of what purpose this music served, where and on what it was played, how it was notated, and how the notation related to what was performed, much of it may appear strange, clumsy, and even dull. We have tried to keep the intrusion of those topics to a minimum, treating them only to the extent necessary.
The culture and habits of the early keyboard players are a worthy topic for another book, and the story of their instruments would hardly receive justice by anything less, but the primary goal of this volume is to provide a guide to their preserved compositions for the benefit of present-day musicians and music lovers. We also must warn our readers not to expect an encyclopedic survey of the keyboard literature before along the lines of Apel Rather than providing a continuous narrative of the development of keyboard music in each region—a narrative that is largely mythical—we have selected the composers and pieces that we believe still have most to offer in terms of artistic interest and value.
Historical significance, although of some consideration, generally took second place in the selection process. Inevitably, our judgment on what to include and what to omit, what to emphasize and what to skim past, will not please everyone, but that is in the nature of a book of this sort. For certain compositions the question arises as to whether or not they should be regarded as keyboard music.
Our criterion for inclusion was the working definition: any music that appears to have been scored to be directly playable on a keyboard. In principle this includes open score and tablature arrangements of songs or vocal polyphony if there are signs that, beyond the act of transcription, an effort was made to adapt the works to keyboard. Music published in separate parts for individual voices also is occasionally advertised as suitable for keyboard e. For works notated in open score the situation is more ambiguous; many of those were in fact intended primarily for performance at the keyboard and are discussed here as such.
Finally, although we are well aware that the preserved specimens of keyboard music present only a minute fraction of the music that was played and heard the rest either being lost or, more often, never written down and that what survives may be neither typical nor necessarily the best of what was heard, we have made the stillexisting compositions our sole concern and not entered into speculations about the nature of the vanished repertory. Readers will note some differences in approach and organization among the chapters.
In part this reflects differences among the national traditions, in part preferences of the individual authors. The Italian and Spanish chapters include extensive coverage of the sixteenth century, treated scantily in the French chapter, but that accords with the comparative size and interest of the surviving repertory.
Every chapter concludes with a Guide to Literature and Edidons, a Bibliography subdivided into Editions and Literature , and a list of Manuscript Short Titles except for chapter 4. Again, no attempt was made at comprehensiveness, and emphasis was placed on recent literature, preferably in English; the reader is referred to the bibliographies in Apel and NG for additional earlier items.
Similarly, the editions singled out for listing are those each chapter author considered most reliable as well as most accessible. We also want to express our appreciation to Jonathan Wiener, Jane Andrassi, and other members of the staff of Schirmer Books for their expert assistance and their patience and understanding.
Finally, we wish to pay special tribute to Maribeth Anderson Payne, former editor in chief, who conceived and initiated this series of volumes on keyboard music. Manuscripts are cited by short titles; at the end of most bibliographies a list of manuscript short titles is provided that gives their full RISM sigla. Sigla for series publications used only within a chapter are explained in their bibliography entries.
The following are used throughout the volume: Apel Apel, Willi. The History of Keyboard Music to General Editor, Stanley Sadie. Edited by Stanley Sadie; executive editor, John Tyrell. General Editor, Alexander Silbiger. New York, —89 Notes 1. A further danger of our division into national chapters is that it might slight the contributions of smaller nations such as Poland and the Scandinavian countries. The surviving repertory of each of those countries is, however, comparatively small, and they have contributed few keyboard figures of more than regional significance.
Apel Surprisingly, Apel seems to have been aware of this trap p. Together with Richard Turbet he coedited Byrd Studies. He has made eleven solo recordings on organ and harpsichord, including works of Bach, Elgar, Frescobaldi, Kuhnau, Pachelbel, and Telemann. A specialist in early Iberian keyboard literature, he has published articles in journals both in the USA and abroad. His recordings of Iberian keyboard music on organ and harpsichord are available on the Calcante, Gothic, Musical Heritage Society, and Naxos labels.
He has prepared editions of madrigals by Nicola Vicentino and of sacred concertos by Matthias Weckmann, and published numerous articles on music from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. A mechanism, sometimes elementary, sometimes formidably complex, was interposed between vibrating strings or air columns and their own bodies.
The two hands could be like two players, both emerging from one, and easily merged back into one. It is no wonder that keyboard playing would become a nearly indispensable auxiliary skill for all musicians attempting to grasp and manipulate the complex textures of music of later centuries, and that so many composers would come from the ranks of masters of that skill. Although an instrument functioning in principle like an organ was already known in ancient Greece and Rome ancient texts credit its invention to an Alexandrian engineer, Ctesibius, in the third century B.
From that period survive concrete reports on organs and their use, parts of actual instruments, and clear depictions of organists with both hands on the keyboard. The harpsichord and clavichord also seem to have entered the musical world around this time; a document from credits the invention of the former to a Viennese physician, Hermann Poll, who called his device a clavicembalum. Keyboard music before 2 It probably is no coincidence that the first samples of notated keyboard music date from this period.
On the other hand, the varieties of notational forms, which laid the foundations for long-lived regional traditions, suggest that these forms did not emanate from a central source but represent local solutions to the problem of capturing keyboard music on the page. How to take full advantage of the possibilities offered by these new, or newly improved, instruments, and how to notate the results, would by no means have been obvious, and the surviving evidence provides no more than occasional hints of the story of its accomplishment.
Notation Musical culture had been solidly based on musicians performing single lines, and polyphony was created by the collaboration of several such performers. Coordination of their parts had become much facilitated by the comparatively recent system of mensural notation. This system primarily served singers, who had been the main practitioners of polyphony; pitch notation relied on solmization practice, and thus was relative.
When it was realized that on a keyboard more than one voice could be performed, the obvious thing to try would have been the simultaneous rendition of two independent voices, one by each hand, although there also may have been experimentation with drones and parallel organum. Even adaptations of three-part songs tend to retain only two of the voices, usually cantus and tenor or sometimes cantus and a composite of the two lower voices.
At most an occasional sustained sonority is filled in with a third note. Elaborate diminutions in the upper voice suggest a well-developed right-hand technique, but no such demands were yet made of the left hand. Because of the two-part texture and the slow-moving lower voice, some of these pieces may sound a bit thin and static to modern ears, although one cannot help admiring the dazzling diminutions, particularly those of the Faenza Codex. The surviving specimens of keyboard music from before c. A rough count nets some 25 manuscripts ranging from fragments preserved in book bindings to the quite substantial Faenza and Buxheim Codices.
Pianists still tend to perform in public without scores. Some awareness of how the music was notated should be of interest even to players who approach this repertory mostly through modern editions, and might in fact help them interpret what they see. Two fundamentally different approaches are encountered in the early sources.
The first Introduction 3 is called old German organ or keyboard tablature because it was used mostly in the Germanic regions, although it may not have originated there, since early examples exist from England Robertsbridge fragment, c. The origin of this curious but longlived practice until c. Someone trying out a song on a keyboard would need to look simultaneously at two different parts of the page or, more realistically, to memorize part of one voice while reading another.
The tablature notation may have started when, as a memory aid, people began indicating with letters a lower part underneath the highest part. Reproduced by courtesy of the Biblioteca universitaria di Bologna. Thus, it closely resembles modern keyboard notation, although we will note a few differences of which one should be aware when preparing editions or performing from a facsimile.
The assignment of each of the two staves to a different hand was to remain part of the Italian tablature tradition through the seventeenth century.
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Illustration 1. Characteristic of Italian tablature and contributing to its modern appearance are the bar lines, not usually seen in vocal notation of the time. In fact, the staff notations used in both the early German tablatures for the right hand and the early Italian tablatures for both hands differed in several respects from the contemporary mensural notation; we shall come back to these differences, which concern especially the notation of time values and accidentals and usually can be related to the different orientations of singers and keyboard players.
In Germany the asymmetric, right-hand-privileging tablature was abandoned in the late sixteenth century, not, as had happened elsewhere, by giving the left hand its own staff, but by extending the letter notation to the right hand. The resulting so-called new German organ tablature remained in common use throughout the seventeenth century, with occasional competition from the partitura system and, increasingly, from staff notation. Although this system does not provide a suggestive graphic representation of musical events comparable to that of staff notation, it does offer several advantages that may account for its long survival.
Writing staff notation has always been a laborious process, requiring a special skill and wasteful of precious paper; to print a complex keyboard score in a manner that really does it justice called for the even rarer skill of engraving it on a copper plate for examples, see Ills. Copying a score in new German tablature was quick and used up relatively little paper; it could be printed quite economically by combining a limited number of set type pieces see Ill.
On the other hand, a player had to take in two distinct symbols for the pitch and duration of each note, or eight symbols altogether for a four-part chord, which does seem rather cumbersome. From the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries Italian tablature developed more or less smoothly to modern notational practice.
Reproduced by courtesy of the University Library, Groningen. A more important difference, often still noticeable in modern editions of the tablatures, is that the original notation indicates what should be played, but makes no effort to show the underlying voice leading by rests, direction of stems, double stems, or division between staves. When contrapuntal voicing was of prime concern in keyboard compositions, Italian composers could avail themselves of partitura notation or open score, usually in four voices.
It was especially favored for pieces in the polyphonic style like ricercars and Introduction 7 fantasies, but also was sometimes used—at least in Naples—for other types of works, such as toccatas, dances, and variations. A fringe benefit that may account for some instances of its use was that printers had a much easier time printing the individual voice staves than the complex textures represented on the staves of tablature notation, particularly when printing from movable type. Thus, both pedagogical benefits and economy may be responsible for the occasional use of partitura almost everywhere in Europe see, e.
Outside Italy and Germany we have no evidence of a continuous tradition of notating keyboard music before the sixteenth century. The English seemed to have looked on their keyboard scores as an attempt to accommodate several voices on two staves rather than as a tablature, and they carried over several elements of mensural notation, although until the later seventeenth century they did prefer six-line staves. There are so few French keyboard sources from before the seventeenth century that it would be dangerous to regard their idiosyncracies as representative of a French tradition.
Like the later French sources they possess one characteristic that would be universally adopted in keyboard notation from the eighteenth century onward: the use of two fiveline staves. In fact, except for the frequent use of soprano clef in the upper staff and baritone clef in the lower one and in some cases the heavy overgrowth of ornament signs , most early French keyboard scores can be read with little difficulty by present-day players see Ills. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spanish sources show notational systems similar in principle to new German tablature, except that numbers were used rather than letters see Ill.
Eventually, however, two-staff notation gained the upper hand. It may seem curious that distinct national forms of keyboard notation and other instrumental notation such as lute tablature persisted during a time when vocal notation everywhere had become more or less standardized. For example, the masses and motets of Josquin and other Franco-Netherlandish composers, the subsequent madrigals of the Italians, and the chansons of the French were regarded as works of music that existed in permanent, notated forms and were copied, studied, and performed throughout Europe.
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To a singer an accidental meant a hexachord shift,9 or a temporary transposition, but for a keyboard player it was merely a mechanical instruction to play the adjacent raised key. In German tablatures accidentals were indicated by the attachments of little hooks to either note or letter that always signified a sharp e. In vocal notation accidentals were often omitted, either because they were selfevident or because they were left as options for the singers.
In tablatures that practice was less common although by no means nonexistent , surely because it must have appeared pointless to tell a player to press, say, the F key when the F-sharp key was intended. Nevertheless, particularly in scores with staff notation, the accidentals were treated quite casually. During this period the degree inflection of a particular pitch was not so crucial for the musical meaning of a passage as it would become in later centuries. In Beethoven it makes all the difference whether a given chord is major or minor, but in Byrd no more than momentary color may be at stake.
A further distinction from later notation is that in early keyboard scores an accidental applies only to the note that immediately follows, and not, as is customary today, to the remainder of the measure a prin-ciple clearly tied to the later notion of key. Thus, at least in theory, accidentals are repeated as needed, and when they are absent the note should not be altered. In practice they were often omitted, leaving it for the modern editor or player to decide whether or not the omission was deliberate or the result of carelessness.
A further complication is that in some scores an accidental also applied to repeated pitches but in others it did not, so that in the case, say, of two Cs with a sharp before the first one, the editor or often the player must determine if both are to be played as C sharp or if a chromatic descent C sharp-C was intended. The moral is that players should not necessarily follow the accidentals prescribed in either original texts or modern editions, but be ready to alter them in any way that gives a more musically satisfying result.
In English and Italian scores the most striking difference is the addition of bar lines, never seen in single-line ensemble parts; their insertion sometimes affected notes meant to continue beyond the measure. Because of this, certain mid-twentiethcentury editions e. The reason for such drastic reduction of the original note values is undoubtedly the deceptive appearances of the duration signs in these tablatures; a quarter note, for example after c.
The resemblance is even more misleading in old German tablature, in which the note shapes on the staff often resemble mensural note values that are four times smaller; this can be seen very clearly in Illustration 1. J l, 2v. Keyboard music before 10 on how to transcribe a vocal composition into tablature the example also illustrates several of the other differences between mensural and tablature notation.
One legacy of the mensural system increasingly prevalent in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries is a bewildering variety of meter signatures, including Cs with dots, backward Cs, circles with and without slashes, often in combination with various numerical ratios, and sometimes followed by peculiar-looking note shapes like black whole notes or white eighth notes.
In theory these symbols convey something about tempo or rhythmic relationships, but all too often they were used with little consistency, and it is no longer possible to recover precisely what the composer had in mind. If in such cases the editor does not provide a plausible interpretation, a bit of experimentation may be called for. The Early Repertory As long as keyboard players were limited to single lines, they probably were satisfied with a repertory of chant melodies, popular songs, and dance tunes shared with other musicians. One imagines them decorating their melodies with increasingly elaborate divisions as the keyboards became more responsive and flexible.
When they began exploring two-handed playing, their only existing model would have been polyphonic ensemble music; adaptations of popular ensemble pieces make up a substantial segment of the earliest surviving repertory. For some time such pieces outweighed in number the first of what might be considered autonomous keyboard works: cantus firmus settings of liturgical chants with the chant in long note values in the left hand and, eventually, pieces not based on an existing song but on a church mode or psalm-tone formula, with titles like prelude, preambulum, intonation, or ricercar.
Present-day musicians may feel frustrated by the absence in this early repertory of a substantial body of original keyboard compositions comparable to the sonatas, suites, and character pieces bequeathed by the great masters of later times. That now so-familiar and much-loved concert repertory is, however, by no means typical of what was commonly played and published; workaday keyboard fare has always consisted predominantly of arrangements of popular songs and arias. Many such settings are simple to the point of being skeletal, although occasionally a Byrd or a Liszt would make his virtuoso fantasies on these tunes available to less gifted players.
Keyboard adaptations of famous ensemble pieces, from sixteenth-century canzonas to nineteenth-century symphonies, have always been in demand, and, naturally, the need for technical exercises and other educational materials has remained constant through the centuries. The earliest keyboard repertory was in many ways very similar.
The popular songs were often French; from the Machaut ballades in the Faenza Codex to the ubiquitous Lully arrangements of two and a half centuries later, French imports made their way into the keyboard books of England, Germany, Italy, and Spain along with favorite native songs and dances. A lot of pieces were copied out for teaching purposes, which, since playing and composing were not yet entirely separate activities, could include models for improvisation e.
Not until approximately the middle of the sixteenth century do we see the creation of sets of carefully crafted compositions that were committed to paper, copied, published, admired, and remembered. Among the earliest of such collections are those of Girolamo Cavazzoni published beginning in in Lorenzo Penna still recommended them to students, along with the works of Luzzaschi, Merulo, and Frescobaldi In Merulo projected the publication of a dozen volumes, mostly of his own compositions and intabulations, although only a few volumes were realized.
Before long these composers were joined by Byrd in England, Sweelinck in the Netherlands, and others elsewhere. Each contributed a memorable body of original works that signaled the transformation of keyboard music from an ephemeral, improvised art form to one with a growing repertory of substantial compositions to be preserved and treasured by successive generations. There is no doubt that these are the works that will continue to attract the widest interest from musicians and their audiences. Still, whoever takes the trouble to explore the large quantities of unpretentious song settings, dance variations, liturgical service music, and pedagogical material that continued to be produced mostly by obscure or anonymous figures will be rewarded by many a gem of unusual charm.
The lines between the two repertories are not always so sharply drawn; several major composers have contributed attractive little pieces for nearbeginners as well as arrangements of famous chansons and madrigals or variations on well-known airs and dances. Among those arrangements and variations are some of their most technically demanding and artistically imaginative compositions—works that deserve comparison with the improvisations by the great jazz masters of our own century. Genres and Their Contexts As with most music from the more remote past, it is generally difficult to find precise answers to the questions that might help to set a given piece in its historical frame— questions such as why was it composed, where and when was it performed, what purpose Keyboard music before 12 was it meant to serve?
Most pieces were probably not written for monetary gain, at least not directly. Composers rarely earned a substantial part of their income from writing keyboard pieces; most made their living by performing, supplemented with some teaching. The nature of those activities was likely to determine the character of his compositional work for keyboard.
For the majority, though, the need to supply varied and attractive music throughout the church year was ever present, and although they undoubtedly met this need for the most part by improvisation, almost all have left us examples—presumably notated for less gifted organists or as models for their pupils—of how they responded. The details are rarely recorded e. As with the church services, these artists did not need written music for their court performances, although some may have liked to work out more complex compositions on paper; most music that circulated in manuscript or print probably served students and collectors.
Many pieces no doubt reflected the improvisations with which the artists Introduction 13 diverted their patrons—improvisations that might have included warmups of arpeggiations and scales, variations on favorite airs, cantus firmus settings, and fugal fantasies on given themes. To associate various genres with more specific venues or occasions is generally not possible; in fact, there is an entire category of pieces like preludes, toccatas, fantasies, ricercars, and tientos that could fit any function, sacred or secular, that were suitable to any time or place, and playable on whatever type of keyboard instrument was appropriate to the occasion, even if originally conceived for a different type.
Scholars have worked hard to try to define the differences among these genres in terms of their structural organization, since form has been such an important factor in their understanding of later genres. However, the distinctions that seemed to have mattered most were those of mood and character.
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Among the Italian types the ricercar was serious and dignified, whereas the canzona was tuneful and lighthearted and the capriccio playful and witty. The toccata moved back and forth between moods of hesitation and determination, reflecting its preludial roots. IMITATIVE GENRES It would be a mistake to lump together all the canzonas, capriccios, fantasias, ricercars, and tientos as early, not yet fully developed varieties of fugue, and to evaluate them according to the strictness of their counterpoint and consistency of their subject s.
During the eighteenth century the fugue became an exceptional sort of piece associated with learning and antiquity, but in our period imitation was part of the normal home-andgarden style of serious music and by itself did not define a genre. Furthermore, these largely imitative pieces do not show a progressive evolution toward the monothematic fugue; monothematicism is a feature present in some very early examples and missing in some very late ones.
The earlier ricercars, fantasies, and tientos often use neither a single subject nor a set of markedly contrasting subjects, but rather a progression of ideas that appear almost to evolve from each other. The prevailing aesthetic, particularly in the earlier examples, is one of continuous flow and cohesion rather than of overall unity embracing a clearly articulated structure.
DANCES Dances always have been part of the solo keyboard repertory, even though we do not know how much the keyboard instruments actually were used to accompany dancing. The remarkable estampies in the Robertsbridge fragment somewhat resemble a set of Keyboard music before 14 monophonic instrumental pieces from the same time in London and may represent models for adapting such single-line pieces to the keyboard by splitting the line between the two hands, accompanying it in parallel octaves, sixth, or fifths, or adding a slow-moving bass. Most fifteenthcentury players did not, however, consider dance music worth putting on parchment or paper, and most of the largely anonymous keyboard dances from the sixteenth century, whether from England, France, Germany, or Italy, are rather simple settings of popular dance tunes and basses, with one hand usually the right either playing the tune or stereotypical divisions, and the other hand providing an accompaniment, often with parallel block chords.
Several of the earliest serious dance compositions, whether the pavans of Byrd in England or the galliards of Trabaci in Naples, also exist in versions for instrumental ensemble. It could be that when composers wanted to move beyond keyboard dances that were merely harmonizations of popular tunes, they began by adapting ensemble dances, and for some time continued to conceive their keyboard dance compositions initially as four-voice polyphonic settings.
A new approach to writing original and idiomatic dance music for keyboard was introduced by Frescobaldi; his dances, particularly the correntes, capture the lightness and bounce of popular dance music, yet are impeccably crafted, often with hints of polyphonic voicing. His inspiration may have come from both the well-developed stylized dance repertory of the lute and the music of the fiddle-playing dance masters. Dance music is always driven by fashion and exoticism with, of course, more than a hint of eroticism ; Frescobaldi turned his back on the pavans and passamezzos that dominated much of the earlier dance repertory, and in addition to the corrente probably of French lineage and the balletto a form of allemande or German dance , he promoted the passacaglia and the ciaccona chaconne , of Spanish and New World origins respectively.
In his last publications he began to combine his short dance pieces into little cycles, favoring the sequence balletto-correntepassacaglie. The idea of combining different dance types was hardly new; pairs of musically related pavans and galliards, for example, had been enjoying great popularity in England. The practice was to assume even greater importance for the next generations. Because of the scarcity of French harpsichord music from before , we are not certain to what extent he actually provided the lead or—more likely—followed already existing French conventions.
It is, however, beyond question that during the later part of the century France provided the models of dance music for the rest of Europe, including new favorites like the minuet that trickled down from the Introduction 15 court of Louis XIV. With the inspiration of those models, the English, Germans, and Italians all created their own traditions of keyboard dances, thus contributing to the rich and diverse Baroque repertory.
We shall close with an instructive example that illustrates the flow of keyboard music across national boundaries during the middle of the seventeenth century, and the regional accents acquired by the foreign imports. Example 1. The piece, perhaps because of its haunting melody, seems to have enjoyed international popularity; copies survive in seven manuscripts from England, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. Since in one manuscript it appears twice, there actually are eight versions, no two of which are identical.
Beginning with the end of phrase, we observe that the F-major chord in mm. Does this mean that English and German harpsichordists were more fond of prolonging final chords in this fashion than their Dutch and Italian colleagues? A similar question can be asked about the ornamentation. La Barre, Courante supplied with pairs of diagonal strokes—the ubiquitous English ornament signs that presumably prescribe some form of trill or mordent about the precise meaning we are still guessing; see p.
We know from many contemporary sources that Italians were as fond of trills as anyone else, but that they considered such matters as where to add ornaments or how to arpeggiate a chord mere interpretive details best left to the performer. The opposite extreme to this laxity is shown in m. Written-out trills appear again several times later in the piece; perhaps this characteristic cadential figure was still enough of a novelty in Introduction 17 Germany for the copyist to think it safer to write it out rather than indicate it by a sign.
In general, the spelling out of details was as much a tradition in Germany with Bach as the classical example as was their omission in Italy. Other interesting differences among these and the other versions do not become evident until one looks at the entire piece. For example, in all but the Dutch version the courante is followed by a characteristically French double, a variation, mostly of the treble voice, in flowing eighth notes.
The double is more or less the same in all versions and thus forms part of the piece. One question facing the player is whether one should first play the plain versions, with repeats of both strains, and then the double, again with repeats i. The manuscripts suggest that both methods were practiced, at least outside France. Our Italian version clearly shows the A and B strains with repeats, followed by the two double strains with their repeats; the English version has A going directly into A', followed by B and then B', all without repeats.
The German version is the only one to include a second variation, with eighthnote divisions in the bass; its strains serve as written-out repeats for the double, and thus the resulting scheme is A : : B : A' A" B' B". No version of this courante exists in the hand of the composer or in any other French manuscript or publication. What the lost original was really like, and which of the surviving versions would have been closest to it, are questions that cannot be answered; even in Paris it may not have existed in any fixed form but perhaps was played differently at different times, whether by the composer or by anyone else see p.
Each of the surviving versions must at one time have been the basis of a performance somewhere in Europe and today could be legitimately played as such. The moral of our exercise is that, notwithstanding the impression given by erudite scholarly editions, most early keyboard music and most other kinds of early music for that matter does not really exist in any kind of definitive version.
Our example also suggests that any copy of a piece from a place far from where it was composed very likely picked up flavors and accents from its new home. With knowledge and imagination we can bring these scores back to life and thus enhance our pleasure and, one hopes, that of our listeners. Guide to Literature and Editions Williams offers a comprehensive treatment of the early history of the organ to c.
A recent reference on several aspects of early keyboard instruments, music, Keyboard music before 18 and practices within the larger musical and social context of fifteenth-century Europe is Strohm , in particular pp. On seventeenth-century music in general, Bianconi makes fascinating reading despite its quite deliberate privileging of Italy and its equally deliberate marginalizing of instrumental music.
For keyboard music, Apel remains indispensable, even though it must be used with caution. In addition to the tendency to evaluate composers and their works as links in an evolutionary chain leading toward J. Handy surveys on the instruments and their history are Williams and Owen on the organ and Ripin and colleagues on other keyboard instruments. An annotated list of the sources of keyboard music to c.
There is no good general study on early keyboard notation. As an introduction, Apel is still serviceable, although his transcription policies are outdated; see also Rastall On the significance of various tablature notations, see Silbiger ; interesting interpretations of early printed formats, particularly with reference to Italy and Spain, can be found in Judd On reading from original notation, see SCKM, 1: vii-ix and Silbiger ; on modern editions of early keyboard music in general, see Silbiger note in particular —88 on accidentals.
A valuable source on performance practice and many other aspects of early keyboard music is Williams Many of the earliest keyboard pieces and fragments before c. Strohm , n. For music after c. Notes 1. See the Guide to Literature and Editions at the end of this chapter. Such techniques are still reflected in the estampies of the late fourteenthcentury Robertsbridge fragment; see CEKM, —3.
Williams , 43—44 presents further thoughts on early modes of polyphony that might have been enabled by the keyboard. See p. Of course, the possibility that players sometimes added a third voice, for instance by turning a six into a six-three chord or adding a fifth to an octave in accordance with the polyphonic style of the period , cannot be excluded. Introduction 19 4. In recent years some people have argued that the Faenza Codex was intended for two lutes rather than for keyboard, and a debate on this issue has ensued; see p. We shall regard it here as keyboard music. It is reasonable to assume that in Italy, as elsewhere, some music for keyboard instruments was written down, and on the basis of later sources from Italy and elsewhere, one would predict that with regard to repertory, style, and notation such music would resemble Faenza.
On the Robertsbridge fragment, see Strohm , 83—84; on the Bologna fragment , see Fallows , 18— For later examples of Italian tablature, see Illustrations 5. For more on this point, see Silbiger As late as the early fifteenth century there were still significant differences among the vocal notations of France, Italy, and Germany. Singers read their parts using the solinization technique, that is, according to the syllables of a movable hexachord ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, with a semitone between mi and fa.
A flat signified the placement of fa, a sharp or natural the placement of mi. Ties, although not unknown, were often omitted, and continuation across a bar line was handled by a variety of means not always understood by modern editors : a note was repeated, a prolonging dot was placed in the following measure, or the note was simply cut off at the bar line. Quoted in Judd , The manuscripts are cited, along with modern editions, in Gustafson , — The sources for Example 1. Modern editions of several of these and other versions are given in Gustafson , 12— The triple stroke in Example 1.
Bibliography Apel, Willi. The Notation of Polyphonic Music, — Cambridge MA, Keyboard music before 20 Bianconi, Lorenzo. Music in the Seventeenth Century. David Bryant. Cambridge, Cattin, Giulio. Daalen, Maria van, and Frank L. Diruta, Girolamo. The Transylvanian II Transilvano. Murray C. Bradshaw and Edward J. Henryville, Edler, Arnfried. Handbuch der musikalischen Gattungen, 7. Laaber, Gustafson, Bruce and R. Peter Wolf, eds. The Art of Keyboard, 4. New York, Jeppesen, Knud. Die italienische Orgelmusik am Anfang des Cinquecento. Copenhagen, Judd, Robert Floyd. Marshall, Kimberly.
Rastall, Richard. Ripin, Edwin, et al. Early Keyboard Instruments. Sanders, Ernest H. Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century. Monaco, Silbiger, Alexander. Strohm, Reinhard. The Rise of European Music — Thistlethwaite, Nicholas and Geoffrey Webber, eds. The Cambridge Companion to the Organ. Cambridge, U. Williams, Peter. Howard M. Brown and Stanley Sadie — The Organ in Western Culture, — Wolf, Johannes. Handbuch der Notationskunde. Vol 2. Leipzig, Ziino, Agostino. Hardly less familiar is the earliest substantial manuscript of virginal music, My Ladye Nevells Booke hereafter Nevell , dated and devoted to music by William Byrd.
Byrd, who excelled not only in keyboard writing but in virtually every genre cultivated by the Elizabethans, will be the focus of special attention in this chapter. He played a vital role in developing the forms and characteristic textures of the virginalists. Nevertheless, his younger contemporaries, among whom John Bull and Orlando Gibbons are prominent, did not simply imitate him.
Each brought a distinctive personality to the art of keyboard composition. Needless to say, the virginalists do not tell the whole story of English keyboard music before Thomas Tallis in the sixteenth century and Henry Purcell in the seventeenth to name but two may have been active primarily in other fields, but they produced finely crafted keyboard works that can be appreciated for their own merits and not merely as representing particular genres or anticipating later developments.
Inevitably, keyboard music was affected by the political factors that had such profound effects on English life in general. In particular, the turbulent middle years of both the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries took their toll. But these setbacks were reversed at other times and for English music as a whole a much more positive picture emerges in the years of Elizabeth I r. To a large extent the history of English keyboard music is the history of keyboard music in London.
Most of the composers whose work we shall be considering served as organists of the Chapel Royal, or were otherwise involved with the royal music; some were organists of Westminster Abbey or St. All of the seventeenthcentury printed sources of English keyboard music were issued in London.
Some composers, however, were also associated with provincial cities: Byrd began his career in Lincoln, Bull in Hereford, and Thomas Tomkins ended his in Worcester. In the mid- Keyboard music before 23 seventeenth century Oxford was a center of some importance, as the fine collection of keyboard manuscripts in the Library of Christ Church bears witness. The Background Chronological accounts of European keyboard music invariably begin with an English source, the so-called Robertsbridge fragment from the late fourteenth century, already touched on in chapter 1.
The six pieces therein two incomplete may perhaps have been copied by an English scribe, but the music itself is almost certainly of continental provenance. From fifteenth-century England it is likely that no keyboard music survives at all, and no instruments are extant. However, there is ample evidence for the use of organs during this century, in records of payments to organ builders and technicians in various parts of the country. Probably most fifteenth-century church organs were modest in scale; if they possessed more than one rank set of pipes there was no mechanism for bringing them into play separately, so variations in volume or tone quality would not have possible.
It was not uncommon for a church or cathedral to possess two or more organs—one, for example, on the main choir screen and another in the Lady Chapel—so that wherever services took place an organ would be available. The role of the organist was to participate in the liturgy by playing sections of plainsong that would otherwise have been sung.
This practice presumably arose partly in order to provide variety and partly to give some relief to the singers. Albans Harrison , It is not known whether on that occasion the organ played only the plainsong notes, or something more elaborate, but during the fifteenth century the addition of counterpoints to the plainsong melody no doubt improvised at first , and the decoration of the plainsong line itself, must have become regular features. The earliest surviving English liturgical organ music, from the early sixteenth century, shows these procedures at a fairly sophisticated level of development.
Information about organs in the sixteenth century is somewhat more abundant; records of payments include details of a kind lacking in earlier times. For example, at the Church of St. A famous document of is the contract between the organ builder Anthony Duddyngton and the churchwardens of All Hallows, Barking by the Tower , London, for a pair of organs…of double C-fa-ut that is to say xxvii plain keys, and the principal to contain the length of v foot, so following with Bassus called Diapason to the same, containing length of x foot or more: and to be double principals throughout the said instrument…with as few stops as may be Keyboard music before 24 convenient.
The term appears to derive via French from the Latin par organorum—a set of matching pipes. The organ was to contain principal and diapason ranks, the former sounding an octave above the latter. Other aspects of the instrument remain ambiguous.
Bologne (Émilie-Romagne, Italie)
It could refer to two ranks of pipes e. This compass is sufficient for all extant English liturgical organ music. An unusually informative source is the inventory of musical instruments belonging to Henry VIII, made in The regal was a small chamber organ, no doubt similar to the smaller instruments used in churches. Sometimes a rank of pipes was divided, although exactly where is not stated.
Following the Reformation and during the reign of Elizabeth the organ suffered a period of neglect; many churches allowed their instruments to fall into disrepair, and there is little evidence even of the building or use of house organs.
In the early years of the seventeenth century there was a revival, in which an important part was played by Thomas Dallam. Complete specifications survive for a number of his instruments, some of which have two manuals. Organs built after the disruptions of the midcentury were similar in essential respects to those of Dallam, although the manual compass would often be extended down to G1.
There were still no pedals. Chaire Organ: One stopped diapason 8' ; one flute 4'? Van Wilder himself was a Netherlander, and Dionysius Memo, a keyboard virtuoso from Venice, played at court in We know tantalizingly little about the instruments that the virginalists had at their disposal. Almost certainly, the majority were still imported. Russell mentions nearly 20 instrument makers resident in England in the sixteenth century whose names appear in various records, but of their work only one example survives.
It is a combined organ and harpsichord, dated , by L. Theeuwes, a Netherlander who had settled in London by Its keyboard ran from C to c'" with a chromatic bottom octave, and the harpsichord had three registers, 8', 8', 4'. The importation of foreign instruments continued at least until , when Charles I ordered a large double-manual harpsichord from the Ruckers workshop. However, about 20 rectangular virginals by English makers survive from the years to see, e. They are all of the type with the keyboard left of center, which meant that the string was plucked near the left-hand bridge, giving a bright tone.
English harpsichords from before are extremely rare. One example, made by Charles Haward in London in , has two 8 'stops and may originally have had a lute stop. In the last quarter of the seventeenth century the spinet replaced the Keyboard music before 26 virginal as the standard small domestic keyboard instrument. Virginal by James White, made in London and dated The instrument is seen here in a contemporary setting at the Museum of London.
Reproduced by kind permission of the Museum of London. Manuscripts are our only sources; however, English keyboard manuscripts earlier than Nevell are scarce. Many must have been lost in the religious upheavals of the midcentury. Those that do survive represent two traditions, sacred and secular; Byrd drew on both in forming his own keyboard style. The most important source for liturgical organ music is London The three relevant layers of this composite manuscript ff. The hymn settings on ff. The largest of the purely secular sources is the so-called Dublin Virginal Manuscript of c.
About half the pieces are plainsong settings, although not in any particular liturgical order; among the rest are keyboard transcriptions of anthems and of secular and sacred songs, and a few examples of what appear to be idiomatic harpsichord works. It is Royal App. Example 2. It begins on the supertonic, but from m. The other two pieces have more obvious connections with the court: Sir Nicholas Carew d.
The haunting third piece does not employ a ground, though only three chords are used. It achieves its effect by a flexible melody cast in nineand ten-measure phrases and by the use of chords of the flattened seventh B flat in a C-major context. These three idiomatic pieces could well have been played on the regal as well as on the virginal, and the same is true of six short dances that follow them in Royal App.
The third dance is found as a four-part pavan in continental printed sources of and Peter Holman has reconstructed these pieces for recorder quartet or other instruments. A companion volume to Royal App.
In English settings, the chant selected as a cantus firmus is normally carried by one voice in a texture with a fixed number of voices, and it will be used in its entirety without intervening rests. Nearly always each note of the chant is given equal value. The process is illustrated in Examples 2. Breaking of the plainsong is particularly common in two-part textures, with the cantus firmus in the lower voice.
The result has the character of a free duet in which hints of imitation may occur. In three- and four-voice settings, such imitations as are present are usually the province of the descanting i. The surviving repertory is almost equally divided between music for the Mass and music for the Office services such as Matins and Vespers. Both are designed for alternatim performance and both are incompletely preserved. More than a dozen settings survive of the Offertory Felix namque. For the Office, hymn settings predominate.
Polyphony is usually provided for two, three, or four verses, and it is clear that alternatim performance was again envisaged. Royal App. The organ music in Royal App. The second section is in triple rhythm still quite unusual in the context of this repertory , the chant notes being written as semibreve plus minim, but various proportions are soon introduced 2 against 3, 4 against 3, 8 against 3 and the final measures exploit a cross-rhythm.
The second Felix namque in Royal App. The plainsong is written out at the end of the piece beginning on d' and, as John Caldwell has suggested , 24 , it is most effective if supplied by a second player an octave higher than written. The only composer named in both is John Redford, organist of St. Redford was a resourceful composer, though he preferred to write in two or three parts rather than four. Several of his pieces have a written compass an octave higher than usual, c to g'"; the effect would have been achieved by playing an octave lower and using only the principal 4' rank i.
The Mulliner Book London , f. Reproduced by kind permission of the British Library. The four verses, respectively a 2, a 3, a 4, and a 3, explore a range of techniques and moods. Blitheman, Eterne rerum conditor, verse 1 slightly decorated plainsong in the tenor, the top part has five phrases of varying length, all beginning differently but together forming a beautifully shaped melody. In verse 4 the hymn melody finally surfaces unadorned, accompanied by a lively left-hand duet.
Tallis, Clarifica me Pater II four settings have the chant in breves, respectively in treble, bass, alto, and tenor. In each piece Preston employs a succession of imitative figures against the cantus firmus, but Keyboard music before 32 these lack distinctive character, and in spite of the cadences that occur at various points, the music conveys no strong sense of structure. It starts well, with the first imitative point derived from the opening of the cantus firmus Ex.
The music comes to life chiefly at those points where the cantus firmus itself is decorated—as in the final measures, with their gently overlapping descending lines. English liturgical organ music is seldom featured in recital programs or recordings and the scope for its use within present-day liturgies is limited. Yet much of it certainly deserves performance. The two most distinguished members of the school, Tallis and Blitheman, lived on well beyond the date when Catholic services ceased in England Tallis died in , Blitheman in , and it is likely that some of their plainsongbased music is post-Reformation, written for other than liturgical purposes and possibly intended for virginal as much as for organ.
Both of the Tallis works include the intonation and the Alleluia and both explore a great range of figurations; they summarize the techniques of the liturgical organ school and at the same time look forward to many typical features of the virginalist style. Before we turn to a fuller account of Byrd, it remains briefly to consider the secular keyboard tradition of the midcentury, as represented by the Dublin Virginal Manuscript of c. Preston, Beatus Laurentius character of almans and corantos. But there is an element of flexibility in the introduction of new figurations at unexpected points; triplets, for example, first appear in the final Keyboard music before 33 measure of statement 2, and there is a return to duple division of the beat at m.
These dances are mostly cast in strains of four or eight measures and sometimes varied repeats are written out; the amount of extra decoration, however, is modest. The most sophisticated of the pavans are Nos. Tayler, Pavan, last four measures No. But this same source does contain one extended dance movement that, equally, has the hallmarks of an original keyboard work. It is the [Galliard in F] No. It consists of two 8-measure strains, each with thoroughgoing varied repeats; this measure scheme is then subject to two further variations making a piece of 96 measures in all plus a concluding measure.
There are occasional hints of an independent alto or tenor part but the texture is largely right- hand figuration against left-hand chords; it is the variety of this figuration, ranging freely over nearly two octaves c' to a" that is the main focus of interest. A slight holding back of the onward flow at the beginning of the second main section mm. William Byrd or — Byrd held a commanding position in English music of his time, comparable to that of Britten in the twentieth century. Born in late or Harley , 14 , Byrd served as organist of Lincoln Cathedral from to As he approached his fiftieth year Byrd ventured into print again with two collections of English songs and and two of Cantiones Sacrae and Parthenia or the Maydenhead of the first musicke that ever was printed for the Virginalls is a relatively small volume printed from engraved plates, containing eight pieces by Byrd, seven by John Bull, and six by Orlando Gibbons.
Even the titles of the relevant chapters serve to indicate the range of the keyboard music, which totals about pieces if all the dance movements are counted separately: Organ Antiphons and Hymns; Grounds and Related Pieces; Variations; Almans, Smaller Dances, Arrangements, Descriptive Music; Pavans and Galliards; Fantasias and Preludes.
Kentala, J. Fernandes G. Hiller, N. Fibich Zdenek — 2. Fibich Zdenek — 3. Finzi Gerald — — Earth and air and rain, songs — R. Williams, Sacconi Quartet. Fiser Lubos — — Concerto per 2 pianoforti e orchestra, in un movimento — G. Ohlsson, F. Foote Arthur — Piano quintet op. Forster Emanuel Aloys — Streichquintette op. James Baroque Players, Bolt. Wales — Tadaaki Otaka. Petrig, David Jan Kram. Knappertsbusch, Barenboim, Zubin Mehta, Gabrieli Giovanni — Sacrae symphoniae Canzoni et sonate — Andrew Parrott.
Edgar Gilbert. Britten — Steuart Bedford. Britten Italian version — F. Scaglia, Gebel Georg d. Geirr Tveitt — Hundrad Hardingtonar op. Geminiani Francesco — Sonates pout violoncelle avec la basse continue — B. Pons, Orquesta De Cambra L. Holiday, H. Gesualdo Carlo — Madrigali a cinque voci, Libro quarto — Quintetto vaocale italiano, Gesualdo Carlo — Madrigali a cinque voci, Libro quinto — Quintetto vaocale italiano, Gesualdo Carlo — Madrigali a cinque voci, Libro secondo — Quintetto vaocale italiano, Gesualdo Carlo — Madrigali a cinque voci, Libro terzo — Quintetto vaocale italiano, Giappone — Okinawa Island Songs, folk songs, traditional vocal music of ryukyu, south japan, Victor Record.
Ginastera Alberto — Serenata Op. Sciammarella, D. Ginastera Alberto — Serenata sobre P. Gliere, Ginastera — Harp concertos, Concerto for coloratura soprano — R. Masters, E. Asahina, Crudeli, J. Gluck Christoph Willibald — Orfeo ed Euridice, arr. Bach — Aldo Salvagno, Gens, C. Godowsky Leopold — Piano Works Vol. Gould G. Gounod — Complete Symphonies — Orchestra of St.
Grainger Percy — Vol. Martin in the Fields. Granados Enrique y Campina — Piano music vol. Graun, C. Gubaidulina, E. Pahud, M. Gurdjieff, De Hartmann — 4,5. Hagen, Baron. Corignani, Falckenhagen, Lauffensteiner — Baroque lute duets — J. Halffter — Fandango For 8 Cellos. Cello Octet Conjunto Iberico. Hammer Franz X. Eckert, Hamburger Ratsmusik. Ensemble Sagittarius. Handel George Frideric — , Acis and Galatea, arr. Mendelssohn — Nicholas McGegan, Horstmann, Telemann — Nicholas Mcgegan, Cecilia — Anthony Bernard. Handel George Frideric — , Ode auf St.
Caecilia, Arr. Mozart — Christoph Mueller, Handel George Frideric — , Nabal — S. MacLeod, M. Boog, K. Schoch, F. Sibertin Blanc. Handel George Frideric — Tobit, arr. Serkin, J. Binns, B. Biondi, Haydn Franz Joseph — Complete string quartets Vol. Meisen, E. Sebestyen, M. Haydn Franz Joseph — Quatuors for flute, violin, viola and bass Op. Haydn Franz Joseph — Vol.
Haydn Michael — Missa sub titulo Sti. Leopoldi, Vesperae Innocentium — Alphons von Aarburg. Haydn, Beethoven — Quartet Op. Haydn, Kauer, Vanhal — Aboukir! The battle of the Nile, — C. Schornsheim, D. Sepec, Haydn, Rebel, Bach C. Haydn-de Fossa — String Quartets arranged for two guitars Vol. Heinrich A. Grifftiths, Hellendaal, Vivaldi, Handel — Concerto grosso Op.
Heller Stephen — Nuits blanches Op. Rattle, Herzogenberg Heinrich von — Piano Quartet op. History of Spanish music vol. Hoch, Bruch, Beethoven, etc… — Schizzi orchestrali, Stucke op. Holdridge Lee — Hymns Triumphant vol. Holzbauer, Bach J. Hopkinson Francis arr. Barritt, C. Handley, M. Pradella, Hummel Johann Nepomuk — Piano concerto op. Huygens Constantijn — — Pathodia sacra et profana, — Anne Grimm.
Ipolitov Ivanov — Liturgy of St. Iribarren Frances de — — — Salmos, cantadas y villancicos — David Igarreta. Vankatova, Charles Mackerras, Janacek Leos — The excursion of Mr. Joachim Joseph — Violin concerto in d minor in ungarischer Weise — A. Rosand, S. Juon, Huber — Arabesken Op. Steffen, S.
Kalkbrenner Friederich — Grand septuor op. Kalliwoda, Bassi, Meister — Morceau de salun pour clarinette et piano — J. Fuster, I. Kaminski Heinrich — Der Seitz, J. Ignatii et Francisci Xa. Kapsberger, Pellegrini, Negri, etc… — Armoniosi concerti sopra la chitarra — J. Khatchaturian, Richter, Bjarte Engeset. Korngold Erich Wolfgang — — Lieder des Abschieds op. Korngold Erich Wolfgang — — Sextet in D op. Dicterow, D. Kox, Prokofiev, Shostakovich — Umbrae Futurae.
Schwede, J. Despres, J. Krebs Johann Ludwig — — Sonate per il cembalo con flauto traverso — I. Kertesz G. Kreutzer Conradin — — 42 Etudes pour le violon and more — Felice Cusano. Krommer Franz — — Clarinet Concertos Op. Berkes — Nicolaus Esterhazy Sinfonia. Krommer Franz — — Clarinet Concertos op. Krommer Franz — — Clarinet Quintet op. Krommer Franz — — Concerto op. Krommer Franz — — Partitas for Wind Ensemble, op. Krommer Franz — — String quartets Op. Kuhnel August — Sonate a una e due viole da gamba e basso continuo — M.
Bloch, J. Harneit, La felicidad cumplida, Inscripciones arabes del Alcazar de Sevilla s. Paniagua y otros. Bussuet — Vincent Dumestre. Lalo Edouard — — Violin Concerto Op. Lanciani Flavio Carlo — Il martirio di S. Eustachio — Peter van Heyghen, Marshev, M. Kraemer, P. Valetti, The rare fruits council. Markham, Edinburgh Quartet. Lemba Artur — Fantasy on estonian tunes — Artur Lemba, — Josefowicz, E.
Lindberg Magnus — Dos coyotes for violoncello and piano — A. Karttunen, M. Lindberg, Liszt Franz — Mountain Symphony, Symph. Liszt Franz — Works Vol. Elisabeth, Christus, St. Stanislaus — Leslie Howard. Liszt Franz Arrang. Stott, G. Locatelli Pietro Antonio — Concerti Grossi op. Locatelli Pietro Antonio — Introduzioni teatrali e concerti Op. Wallfisch, P. Kilcher, Lopez — La Route Fleurie, excerpts Orch. Masset, J. Hassler, R. Kennedy, La Simphonie du Marais.
Villa, B. Maazel, Machaut Guillaume, H. Rigby, N. Ensemble, M. Brabbins, J. Magnard Alberic — Chant Funebre op. Abendroth, A. Boult, Pacchielle, E. Buoso, M. Irina by MarcelGaffa. Marcello Alessandro — Unpublished concerto and cantatas from codex marciano It. IV — — Andrea Marcon. Martin Frank — Vol. Martinu Bohuslav — Complete music for violin and orchestra vol. Martinu Bohuslav — Works for violin and piano Vol. Chun, N. Hanson, B. Walter, J.
Remoortel, Eibenova, Mazzaferrata Giovanni Battista — Il primo libro delle Sonate a due violini op. Mazzocchi Domenico — Adjuro vos, sacrae concertationes — M. Kiehr, B. Borden, A. Sholl, G. Turk, C. Mealli, Farina, Cima, etc… — Italian sonatas from the early baroque — C. Mehul, Tapray, G. Touzet, B. Alessandrini, Mendelssohn F. H, Farrenc, Schumann C, A. Mendelssohn, Schumann — Songs arrangement by A. Mendelssohn-Bartoldy Felix — Die erste Walpurgisnacht op. Mendelssohn-Bartoldy Felix — Double piano concertos — S. Mendelssohn-Bartoldy Felix — Leise zieht durch mein Gemut arr.
Siegfried Matthus — R. Ziesak, M. Mendelssohn-Bartoldy Felix — Violin Concert op. Boulez, 17 nov National de France, Leonard Berns. Villazon, E. Morales Cristobal de — Mass for the Feast of St. Estarellas, E. Shipway, Moscheles Ignaz — Grand Septuor op. Moscheles Ignaz — Piano concerto C-Dur op.
V — Novosibirsk SQ. Mozart W. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus — 3 string quartets in transcriptions from original piano music by J. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus — Child symphonies K. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus — Die Zauberflote, vers. De Gamerra — G. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus — Piano sonatas arr. Grieg — Dena Piano Duo.
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus — Serenade K. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus — Sonata per pianoforte a 4 mani K. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus, Grieg E. Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus, Strauss R. Mozart, Bach J. Kozena, Prague Philarmonic, Swierczewski. Mozart, Salieri, M.
Bologne (Émilie-Romagne, Italie)
Tilegant, Navarro Matias — Cantadas a solo, dos y tres voces con instrumentos Capella de Ministrers. Nielsen Carl — Helios Ouverture op. Soderstrom, Young, Borg, Horenstein, Live Noskowski Zygmunt — Piano quartet in d minor op.